Female Cow Reproductive System – Best Guide to Learn Anatomical Features of Genital Organs

Do you want to learn about female cow reproductive system?

In this article I am going to discuss on female cow reproduction system. I will also provide female cow reproduction system diagram.

You will get little information about pregnant cow anatomy along with function of reproductive system of cow. After reading this article you will able to learn anatomy of different organs from female cow reproductive system. You may also learn about reproductive system of bull at here.  

I have a special gift for you – cattle reproductive system pdf at the end of the article.

If you have interest to learn anatomy of cow reproductive system then please continue this article.  Okay, let’s learn cow reproductive anatomy together.

Female cow reproductive system

Do you know the organs of female cow reproductive system? I would like to enlist organs from cow reproductive system –

#1. Ovaries (two in number – right and left ovary)

#2. Uterine tube or fallopian tube (you may also call it as oviduct)

#3. Uterus (there are three different parts of uterus – horn of uterus, body of uterus and cervix of uterus)

#4. Vestibule of female cow reproductive system

#5. Female urethra

#6. External genitalia like bulba and button

#7. Accessory genital organ – the mammary gland

 Hope you got the basic idea about the reproductive organs from female genital system of cow. Now I am going to describe all of these organs in details.

In this article I am going to represent cow but you may also learn other female animal’s reproductive system.

Female reproductive system diagram

Please try to find out the following organs or structures from the diagram –

#1. Ovaries

#2. Isthmus

#3. Ampulla

#4. Infundibulum

#5. Horn of uterus

#6. Uterine caruncles

#7. Cervix of uterus

#8. Cervical canal

#9. Floor of vestibule

#10. Opening of canal of gartner

#11. External urethral orifice

#12. Suburethral diverticulum

#13. Vestibule of female cow

#14. bulba (please find the correct form)

#15. Last part of large intestine and its external part

If you find any other structures in female cow reproductive system diagram please let me inform. Hope these structures will help you to understand the anatomy of female cow reproductive system.

Organs of female cow reproductive system

I would like to focus on anatomy of cow ovary and anatomy of cow uterus. I will also describe other organs from female genital system of cow.

Ovary from female cow reproductive system

The ovary of female cow is small oval in shaped. It is located at the middle of the lateral margin of pelvic inlet. This position is applicable for non –pregnant cow. But in pregnant cow ovary is located further craniad than the non-pregnant cow. Hope you could understand the ovary location.

You will understand more about the location of cow ovary. Let’s continue and understand the exact location of cow ovary.

There are two ovaries in cow and they are right ovary and left ovary. Right ovary is caudal to corresponding kidney. And the left ovary located little and further caudal than right ovary

Structure of ovary from female cow reproductive system

Each cow ovary has the following anatomical structures –

#1. Two surfaces

#2. Two borders and

#3. Two extremities

Want to know the anatomical features of cow ovary? 

The surfaces of cow ovary are medial and lateral. The medial surface of ovary is smooth and rounded in cow. In lateral surface there are presences of follicle of various sizes from the surface. There are different stages of development of follicle in cow ovary.

Mostly you will find some round bodies like structure known as graffian follicle. These graffian follicles are remaining scattered at the peripheral of the surface of cow ovary.

Center of the graffian follicle develops into an ovum. The remnents of rupture follicles form corpus luteum in later stage.

Do you want to know about corpus luteum from cow ovary? You will get full histology guide of corpus luteum of cow ovary at here.

The corpus luteum is well-developed at pregnant cow.

The borders of cow ovary are –

#1. Attached or mesovarial border and

#2. Free border that is convex

The attached border is also convex and enclosed by cranial part of broad ligament. This part of this broad ligament is known as mesovarium.

Don’t know about broad ligament? You will get information about broad ligament in anatomy of cow uterus section.

There are two extremities in cow ovary –

#1. Tubal or cranial extremity

#2. Uterine or caudal extremity

Tubal extremity is rounded and related to the fimbriated end of uterine tube.

Caudal extremity of cow ovary is rounded and connected to the horn of uterus. This connection is done by proper ligament of ovary.

Hope you got an idea about anatomy of ovary from female cow reproductive system.

Ovary in different animals

Ovary in horse

I would like to provide the special anatomical features of horse ovary –

#1. They are larger and bean shaped

#2. Located at the sub-lumbar region

#3. Presence of ovulation fossa at the free border of horse ovary

The ovulation fossa is a depression like structure on the free border of the ovary of horse.

Ovary of dog

#1. They are oval elongated in shaped

#2. They are located at the sub-lumbar region (especially under the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae)

Ovary of hen

#1. Present of left set (single) ovary and oviduct. The right set undergoes degeneration in early life

#2. Located at the upper part of the abdominal cavity below the last two ribs

You may learn more about bird reproductive system at here.

Blood supply of cow ovary – by ovarian artery

Nerve supply of cow ovary – by pelvic plexus

Uterine tube from female cow reproductive system

I am going to provide a little information about the anatomy of uterine tube from female cow reproductive system.

Uterine tubes are two flexuous tubes. They are extends from uterine horn to ovary. If you don’t know the horn of uterus please find the horn from cow reproductive system diagram.

Uterine tubes of cow has three main parts and they are –

#1. Isthmus

#2. Ampulla and

#3. Infundibulum

Anatomy of isthmus

Isthmus is the uterine end of the tube and very small in length. It is so narrow but the thickness of wall is more. There is a minute orifice which communicates with cavity of horn of uterus.

You will find some thin, more plicated, longitudinal mucosal flod in the internal part of isthmus.

The middle portion of the cow uterine tube is known as ampulla. The diameter of ampulla is more but the wall is thin.

There is more complex mucosal fold present in internal part of ampulla.

The ovarian extremity of cow uterine tube is more dilated and funnel shaped. This part of uterine tube called infundibulum. At the margin of infundibulum there is irregular ovarian firmbriae. They help to convey oocytes from ovary to uterus.

Uterine tube in other animals

In horse, the uterine tube is more flexuous. The entire length is shorter than cow. The ovarian fimbriae are extensive than other animals.

Uterine tube in dog – it is less flexuous and small.

Anatomy of uterus from female cow reproductive system

The anatomy of cow uterus is more important to know. You should read this cow uterus anatomy carefully.

Uterus is the hollow muscular organ in cow. It is continuous with uterine tube cranially and vestibule caudally.

Uterus is located at the abdominal cavity of cow. Partly it is located into pelvic cavity in cow. It attached to the sub-lumbar region and lateral wall of pelvic cavity by two folds of peritoneum. This folds of peritoneum is called broad ligament of uterus.

Broad ligament provides fold to uterus and extends to internal inguinal ring. This is known as the round ligament of uterus of cow.

Uterus consists of three major parts in cow –

#1. Horn of uterus

#2. Body of uterus and

#3. Cervix of uterus

Let’s know about the details anatomical structures of cow uterus.

Horn of uterus of cow reproductive organs

Horns are two in numbers – the right and left horns. They are cylindrical and spiral muscular tube in cow.

Uterus is located in the abdominal cavity of cow and directed ventrally, cranially, caudally and upward. The dorsal border of uterus is slightly concave and the ventral border is convex and free.

There are two extremities in cow uterus – cranial and caudal. The cranial extremity is blunt and receives uterine tube. The caudal extremity of uterus is larger in diameter.

The two horn of uterus unite to form the body of uterus in cow.

The wall of each horn of uterus in cow composed of the followings –

#1. Perimetrium (this is serous coat)

#2. Myometrium (muscular coat) and

#3. Endrometrium (mucous coat)

In endrometrium of cow uterus you will find some special structure like cytoledon or uterine caruncles. They are the large number of raised pitter button like structures. They remain scatter in cow uterus.

Body and cervix of uterus

The body of the uterus is cylindrical, short and dorso-ventrally flattens tube.  The wall of body is thicker than other parts of uterus.

It located at abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity in cow. It related to last part of small intestine (described in videos) and other parts of intestine dorsally. Ventrally the body of cow uterus is related to bladder and various parts of intestine.

Laterally it is attached with the broad ligament of ovary.

The body is bifurcates cranially to form the uterine horn in cow. Body of cow uterus continuous with cervix at caudally

The cervix is the constricted caudal part of cow uterus from female cow reproductive system. The wall is more thick and having narrow cavity. The cavity of cervix region is known as cervical canal of cow.

There are many spiral mucosal folds and plug of mucous membrane in the cervical canal in cow. The cervix of cow communicates with vestibule caudally through the external uterine orifice.

Cranially, the cervix of uterus communicates with the body of cow uterus through the internal uterine orifice.

Uterus in different animals

Uterus of mare

Please find the special anatomical features on the uterus of horse –

#1. Horns are short and the ends are blunt

#2. The body of uterus is longer and wider than cow uterus

#3. Cervix is short and the cervical canal is straight

#4. There is no cotyledon in the endrometrium of uterus

Uterus of dog

#1. The structures is look like V shaped

#2. Body is shorter but the horn is very long

#3. There is no cotyledon in the endrometirum of dog uterus

Hope you got the basic anatomy of cow uterus.

Blood supply of cow uterus – by uterine artery and uterine branch of ovarian arteries

Nerve supply of uterus – by uterine and pelvic plexuses

Other organs anatomy from female cow reproductive system diagram

Anatomical features of cow vestibule

Vestibule (female cow reproductive organ) is the tubular passage in cow. It extends horizontally from caudal end of cervix of uterus to vestibule. The vestibule dorsally related to last part of small intestine and ventrally related to urinary bladder and female urethra.

The part at cranial end of this organ known as fornix. The caudal part of cow reproductive organ directly continuous with vestibule.

There are presence of transverse folds on the cow vestibule floor. These folds covers the external urethral orifice.

There is also presence of two longitudinal ducts that opens caudally to external urethral orifice. These ducts are known as canals of gartner.

Blood supply in cow vestibule – by branches from internal pudental artery

Nerve supply of cow vestibule – by pelvic plexus

Vestibule in different animals

It is short and having less space in horse. The wall of this organ in horse is thinner. In dog, the length is longer and wall is thinner.

Anatomical features of vestibule

This is the terminal part of female genital tract in cow. It extends form caudal parts of vesti to vulbar cleft. It is related to last part of small intestine dorsally, pelvic flood ventrally and pudental artery laterally.

There is a sub-urethral diverticulum in the floor of veg vestibule. These diverticulums are depression like structure in cow vestibule.

Last part of vestibule anatomy

 This is the external orifice of the cow female genital tarct. You will find the following anatomical structures in bulba –

#1. Bulba cleft (Please watch the video)

#2. Dorsal commissure of bulba

#3. Ventral commissure of this organ

#4. Glans button


Hope you got a better idea about female cow reproductive system. Please watch the video carefully and learn from female cow reproductive system diagram

You may practice again and perform female cow anatomy diagram. Please let me inform if you need cattle reproductive system pdf.

Do you think this article was valuable for you to know anatomy of cow uterus? I would like to request you to share this article with your friends who are interest to learn cow ovary anatomy.

I used to publish article like anatomy of genital organs of cow in a regular basis. Do you want to know more about reproductive system of bull? You may follow this blog to learn bull reproductive organ anatomy. For quick update about cow uterus pictures please follow this anatomylearner at social media.

Could you please make difference of cow vs anatomy of mare uterus?

Do you think this information is enough about cow ovary and uterus anatomy?  If you have any suggestion about functions of reproductive organs of cow then I would like to request you to inform me at comment box. Do you found any mistake at labeled cow reproductive anatomy? Please let me inform through direct message. I will appreciate your suggestion for this anatomy of cow genital organs article.

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