Typical Vertebra of Ox – The Body, Arch and Processes Anatomy

Features of a typical verterba are so important for further study and identification of animal vertebrae from different region. In a typical vertebra structure you will find the body, arch and processes.

Dear anatomy lover, welcome back again to anatomy learner and thank you so much for getting into this article. If you love to know the typical vertebra from any animal like ox, horse or dog then this article is for you.

In this important post I am going to describe the every single parts of a typical vertebra of ox structure (gross). After reading this post you will able to know about the  different osteological features of a typical vertebra of ox anatomy. You may also know about the vertebral column of ox, horse and vertebral formula of ox.

Typical vertebra of ox

Do you want to compare the vertebral formula of ox from vertebral formula of horse? Well, you will find the guide of comparative vertebral formula of animal at the end of this article.

Again, if you want to learn on different types of vertebrae like cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae then you may find articles here in anatomy learner blog.

Fine, let’s get into the main part of today’s article – features of a typical vertebra of ox or other animals.

Typical vertebra of animal

You know that a typical vertebra of ox consists of a vertebral body, arch and three different processes. I will describe these body, arch and processes with their important osteological features.

Now I am going to enlist the important osteological features from animal vertebra that you might know. Let’s find out these anatomical features of vertebra from the pictures or video.

#1. Cylindrical body of ox vertebra

#2. Cranial convex extremity of vertebral body

#3. Caudal concave extremity of vertebral body

#4. Flatten dorsal surface of body of ox vertebra

#5. Narrow ventral surface of body of vertebra

#6. Ventral pedicle of typical vertebra of ox (ventral part of arch)

#7. Cranial and caudal vertebral notch of ventral pedicle of vertebra

#8. Intervertebral foramen (optional) of two adjacent vertebrae

#9. Dorsal lamina of vertebra (dorsal part of arch)

#10. Vertebral ring or bony ring of vertebra

#11. Cranial articular process of vertebra of ox

#12. Caudal articular process of ox vertebra

#13. Spinous process or spine of animal vertebra

#14. Transverse process of animal vertebra

#15. Transverse foramen of animal vertebra

Features of a typical vertebra of ox or other animals

Let’s know the details anatomical features of a typical vertebra of ox or other different animal. You might read this part of article so carefully as this is the basic of any vertebrae of animal’s body (vertebrae from different region).

Structure of body of ox vertebrae

The body of ox vertebra is more or less cylindrical in shaped and the other parts of the vertebra constructed on this part. In the body of a typical vertebra you will find the following important osteological features.

#1. Two extremities of the body of vertebra

#2. Two well defined surface of the body of vertebra

You will find the cranial and caudal extremities in the body of a ox vertebra. The cranial end of the vertebra is convex and the caudal end is concave in apperence. The both extremities of vertebra attached to the corresponding intervertebral fibro-cartilagenious disc.

There are two surface of the body of ox vertebra – dorsal and ventral surfaces. The dorsal surface is flatten and forms the floor of the vertebral canal or neural canal. Again, the ventral part of the body of vertebra have ill developed spine and bounded laterally. This ventral body part related to the muscles and visceral organs of animal’s body.

In the thoracic vertebra, you will find two facets at extremities of the vertebral body. These facets articulate the head of two pair of ribs.

Features of vertebral arch

The arch of a typical vertebra of ox originated from the dorsal aspect of the body. Arch form the lateral and dorsal part a animal vertebra. You will find two parts in the arch of a animal vertebra – the ventral pedicle and dorsal lamina.

The ventral pedicle of vertebra forms the lateral part of the arch. This pedicle usually cut into cranially and caudally by vertebral notches. The intervertebral foramina are formed between the notches of adjacent vertebrae that contains spinal cord, vessels and meninges.

Again, lamina of vertebral arch form the roof of vertebral canal or neural canal. These are the two palte like structure and joins with each other medially at the root of the spinous process. The border of the lamina is usually rough and the ligamentum flava is attached with this border.

Processes of vertebra structure

In a typical vertebra you will find mainly three types of processes – articular process, spinous process and transverse process.

There are two articular processes (for one lateral aspect) in vertebra – cranial (two) articulares and caudal (two) articulares. These articular processes originated form the junction of lamina and pedicle of the vertebra.

All these articular processes posses articular surface for adaptation to adjacent vertebrae. The remaining surface are rough for the attachement of muscle and ligament.

Spinous process is simgle and project dorsally which form the midline of vertebral arch. The size, direction and form of spinous process vary in different vertebrae of animals.

Again the transverse processes are two in numbers and projected laterally from the side of arch or junction of arch and body of animal vertebra. You will also find different variation in transverse processes in different vertebrae; if you want to know these variation in details then you may read article related to animal vertebrae identification from this anatomy learner blog.

#1. Third to sixth cervical vertebra you will find the cranial and caudal parts of transverse process in different animals

#2. The transverse process of thoracic vertebra is pierced by transverse foramen and vertebral artery, vein and nerves pass through this foramen.

#3. There is no transverse formen in the transverse process of seventh cervical vertebra of animals

Vertebral formula of ox

You know, vertebrae has been classified into five different region named cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebra and coccygeal vertebrae. You will find seven cervical, thirteen thoracic, six lumbar, five sacral and fifteen to twenty one coccygeal vertebrae in ox.

Vertebral formula of horse

Do you want to know the vertebral formula of horse? You will find  seven cervical vertebrae, eighteen thoracic vertebrae, six lumbar vertebrae, five sacral vertebrae and fifteen to nineteen coccygeal vertebrae in horse skeleton.

Common vertebra structure diagram

Hope you got the best vertebra structure diagram in this article. If you need more images related to typical vertebra of ox or other different animals then let me inform or follow anatomy learner at social media for more updated pictures.

If you want you may also read other different article related to animal osteology from anatomy learner

#1. Osteological features of scapula bone of animal

#2. Anatomical features of tibia fibula bone of ox


Hope this article was helpful to learn typical vertebra of ox and other animals with labeled pictures. I am sure that you could able to identify all of these features from a typical vertebra of animal. If you want then you may share this article with your friends who are new to anatomy learning.

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