Cow Hip Bone – Osteological Features of Pelvic Girdle Bones of Ox

Hip bone of a cow consists of ilium, ischium and pubis from both right and left aspects. They are also known as os coxae of ox. So there are two numbers of ox coxae of ox. It is so important to know the anatomy of cow hip bone.  

Hey, thank you so much for getting into this article – cow hip bone. In this article I am going to share the anatomy of hip bone of a cow in details.

Hope you will know details anatomy of pelvic girdle, features of pelvic bone, acetabulum and obturator foramen from cow anatomy.

You will also get little information on os coxae of dog and ox coxae of horse.  I will try to provide the basic information of animal hip bone with labeled hip bone pictures and videos.

Cow hip bone

You know there are three bones in cow hip bone –

#1. Ilium bone of ox

#2. Ischium bone of ox and

#3. Pubis bone of ox

I will discuss the important osteological features from these three pelvic bones of ox. Ilium bone of ox is a largest and triangular flat bone. This bone locates on the cranio-lateral aspect of pelvis. You will find two surfaces, three borders and three angles in ilium bone of ox.

Ischium bone of ox is roughly and quadrilateral plate of bone. This bone forms the caudal part of the ventral wall of bony pelvis in ox. Ischium of ox slopes little ventrally and medially. You will find two surfaces, four borders and four angles in ox ischium bone.

Pubis of ox is a small triangular plate like bone. It locates at the anteromedial aspect of pelvic floor. You will find body, two surfaces, three borders and two branches in ox pubis bone.

Do you want to know the details anatomy of these three bones from ox anatomy? Fine, I will try to describe all important anatomical features from these three bones of ox.

What are os coxae of ox from hip bones?

Os coxae of ox or cow consist of three ilium, ischium and pubis bones from right and left aspects. Two os coxae of ox from two lateral aspect formed ossa coxarum in ox.

Do you know how pelvic girdle forms in cow hip?

Ossa coxarum along with sacrum bone and one or two coccygeal vertebrae forms pelvic girdle in cow or ox

Ilium, ischium and pubis bones meet together to form the acetabulum that articulates head of femur bone.

Identification of osteological features from cow hip bone

You should identify the following important osteological features from the cow hip bone –

Osteological features from the ilium bone of ox –

#1. Gluteal line of ilium bone of cow

#2. Psoas tubercle of ilium bone of cow

#3. Greater ischiatic notch in cow hip bone

#4. Greater ischiatic spine of cow pelvic bone

#5. Coxal tube rof ilium bone of cow

#6. Sacral tuber of ilium of cow

#7. Cotyloid cavity or acetabulum of ox

Osteological features form the ischium bone of cow anatomy –

#1. Ischiatic arch of cow

#2. Lesser ischiatic notch of cow hip bones

#3. Ischiatic tuberosity of cow hip or tuber isschii

#4. Ischial symphysis in ischium bone of cow

From pubis of cow, you should identify the following important osteological features –

#1. Iliopubic eminence of pubis bone of ox

#2. Pubic symphysis of pubis bone of cow

#3. Ventral pubic tubercle of ox pubic bone

#4, Obturator foramen and obturator groove of ox hip

You should also know the general consideration of cow hip bone –

#1. Pelvic inlet of cow hip

#2. Pelvic outlet of cow hip

#3. Congugated diameter of cow hip

#4. Transverse diameter of cow hip bones

These are so important from sexual differences in any animals.

Details anatomy of cow pelvic bones

Let’s find the different important features of hip bone labeled pictures. I would like to describe the anatomy of ilium, ischium and pubic bones of cow separately.

Anatomy of ilium from cow hip bone

There are two surfaces in ox ilium bones – gluteal and sacro pelvic surface. The gluteal surface of ilium is wide and also termed as the wing. The gluteal surface is wide and concave cranially in cow. You will find gluteal line that extends from medial border to coxal tuber in cow.

The sacro-pelvic part is convex and has two parts – medial triangular and lateral quadrilateral part in cow. Medial to the medial surface of shaft of sacro-pelvic ilium there is psoas tubercle.

The medial border of ilium is deepy concave in cow. The middle part of medial border of ilium bone of ox forms greater ischiatic notch. The greater ischiatic notch continuous caudally with ischiatic spine

There are three angles found in the liulm bone of cow. In the lateral angle you will find the coxal tuber in cow hip bone. The medial angle forms the sacral tuber in cow hip. Again the distal anagle is expanded and join with pubis and ischium to form acetabulum.

Anatomy of ischium bone from cow pelvis

There are two surfaces in cow ischium bone – pelvic and ventral surfaces. The cranial border of ox ischium forms the caudal margin of obturator foramen in cow. Caudal border is thick and form ischiatic arch in cow hip. Medial border meet opposite bone at ischial symphysis. The lateral border is also thick and forms the lesser ischiatic notch in cow pelvic.

There are four angles found in the ischium bone of cow hip –

#1. Cranio-lateral angle of ox ischium

#2. Cranio- medial angle of ox ischium

#3. Caudo-medial angle of ox ischium

#4. Caudo- latera; angle of ox ischium bone

Caudo- lateral angle is thick and three sides mass in cow. This angle forms the ischial tuberosity in cow hip bone. Another name of ischiatic tuberosity is tuber isschii.

Anatomy of pubis bone of cow

The ventral surface of pubis bone of ox is convex and has rough line for muscular attachment. The cranial border of ox pubis is thin and medial part form pecton osssis pubis in cow. Lateral part of pubis bone bears rough iliopubic eminence in ox. You will find the ventral pubic tubercle near the pubic symphysis.

The caudal border from the margin of obturator foramen in cow hip. It is laterally marked by obturator groove.

What is acetabulum in cow hip?

Acetabulum is also known as the cotyloid cavity in cow. It lodges the head of femur of cow. There is articular and non-articular part of acetabulum of ox. The articular part of acetabulum is crescentric shape in ox. You will find the following structures in the non-articular part of ox acetabulum –

#1. Acetabulum fossa of ox acetabulum

#2. Acetabular notch of ox

#3. Acessory ligament of acetabulum of ox

Do you want to know the boundary of pelvic inlet of cow?

You will find the base of sacrum dorsally of pelvic inlet of cow. Laterally you will find arcuate line in cow ilium bone. Ventrally the pelvic inlet is formed by the pecton ossis pubis

Boundary of pelvic outlet in cow

#1. Dorsally – coccygeal vertebrae of cow

#2. Ventrally – ischial arch and ischial tuberosity

The conjugated diameter is the distance between body of sacrum bone to cranial end of pubic symphysis in cow. Transverse diameter in cow is the greatest width between two psoas tubercle.

Difference in ox and cow hip anatomy

#1. Congugated diameter and transverse diameter are more in cow hip bone

#2. Inclination of pelvic is greater in cow hip

#3. The pelvic outlet is larger in cow hip

#4. Ischiatic arch is about one third wider in cow hip bones

#5. Obturator foramina are also larger in cow hip

#6. The cavity is much roomy in cow hip

#7. Pubic part of the floor is concave in cow

#8. Greater ischiatic notch is deeper and narrow in ox hip

Os coxae of dog

The important features of os coxae of dog are –

#1. The ilium of let side and right side are almost parallel to each other

#2. Gluteal surface is concave in dog

#3. Ischium is twisted in dog hip bone

#4. Ischial tuberosity is flat in dog hip

#5. The acetabulum notch is wider in dog

#6. Greater ischiatic spine is blunt in dog

#7. The lesser ischiatic notches are shallow in dog hip bone

Ox coxae of horse

#1. Hip of horse inclined forward

#2. Gluteal line is not so prominent in horse

#3. Greater ischiatic spine is not sharp in horse

#4. Ischiatic tuberosity is not trifid in horse

#5. Cotyloid cavity and acetabular notch are wide in horse hip bone

#6. Psoas tubercle is not developed in horse

#7. The sacral tuber is inclined backward

#8. Acetabular fossa is ill developed in horse acetabulum

Do you want to learn osteological features of different ox bones from anatomylearner?


Hope you got the best guide to learn cow hip bone anatomy online. You may learn more from the labeled hip bone of a cow pictures. Do you need details guide on os coxae of dog?

If you think this guide help you to learn pelvic girdle anatomy of cow then I would like to request you to share this article with your friend who wants to learn cow hip bone anatomy.

Want to get more labeled pictures of pelvic bone of cow? You will get more pictures of os coxae of ox at here. Thanks for staying with anatomylearner and learn cow hip bone anatomy with me.

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