The radius and ulna of ox are fused bones with each other. But you should identify the osteological features of radius and ulna bones separately. The radius bone of ox is larger than the ulna bone.
Hey, thank you and welcome to anatomylearner. If you looking for a complete guide to learn osteological features of radius and ulna bones of ox then I am here to help you. In this article I am going to share the anatomy of radius and ulna of ox separately.
You will able to learn important osteological features of radius and ulna of dog and pig. I will also share a little information on radius ulna of horse. You will also get the labeled pictures of carpal bones of ox and metacarpal of ox.
Wish to learn anatomy of radius and ulna of animals? Okay, let’s get into today’s discussion – anatomy of radius and ulna bone of different animals.
Radius and ulna of ox
I will provide the separate description for radius and ulna bones of ox, dog and horse. Let’s know some important features of radius of ox –
#1. You already know that radius is larger than ulnar bone in ox; but it is not longer than ulna.
#2. The radius of ox directed to the vertical direction
#3. This bone is curved gently and the cranial aspect is convex
#4. The radius bone of ox consist a body and two extremities
Identification of osteological features from radius and ulna of ox
You should identify the osteological features from these portions of radius bone of ox –
#1. Osteological features from the head or proximal extremity of radius of ox
#2. The osteological features of trochela or distal extremity of radius bone of ox
#3. Important osteological features from body of radius bone of ox
You should identify the following osteological features from the radius bone of ox –
#1. Humeral articular circumference of radius bone of ox
#2. Capitular fovea or coronoid process of ox radius bone
#3. Radial tuberosity of ox radius
#4. Medial tuberosity of ox radius bone
#5. Lateral tuberosity of ox radius bone
You will find articular circumference at the proximal end of radius bone of ox. This structure possesses two articular surfaces that is separated by the groove. This crossed sagittal ridge is known as the capitular fovea.
At the medial side of the dorsal surface of radius and ulna bone you will find a radial tuberosity. This structure is important as the biceps brachii muscle tendon insert at here.
Again you will find medial tuberosity at the medial side of dorsal surface of radius bone of ox above the radial tuberosity.
Important osteological features of radius bone of ox from distal extremity –
You need to indentify the three articular facets for carpal bone of ox. These facets are – medial, middle and lateral facets.
The medial facet is largest and articulates with the radial carpal. Middle facet is smaller and articulates witht the intermediate carpal bone of ox. Again the lateral facet is smaller, convex and articulates with ulnar and accessory carpal bone in ox.
The carpal bone in different animals varies in number. I will share the number of carpal bone from different animal in this article.
Osteological features of body of radius and ulna bone of ox
The body of the radius bone is curved in its length and flattens craniocaudally. You will find a widen part at the end of the body distally. There are two surfaces and two borders in the body of radius of ox bone –
#1. Cranial surface – that is smooth and slightly convex in ox
#2. Caudal surface – that is concave in length and flattens in transvers direction
#3. Medial border – that is slightly concave
#4. Lateral border – is more strongly curved
You should identify the following important osteological features from the anatomy of body of radius bone in ox –
#1. Interosseous space between radius and ulna bone of ox at proximal extrimity
#2. Nutrient foramen in radius bone of ox
#3. Interosseous space in distal extremity
The proximal part of body of radius bone is smooth and have shallow groove. You will find the space between the radius and ulna of ox bones in proximal extremity. This space is known as the proximal interosseous space of radius bone of ox.
Anatomy of Radius and ulna bone of ox (focused on ulna bone)
Ulna of ox is ill developed long bone. This ulna of ox fused with the radius bone at the postero- lateral aspect. You should identify the following important osteological features from the anatomy of ulna bone of ox –
#1. Anconeal process or beak of ulna bone of ox
#2. Olecranon process or tuberosity of ox ulna bone
#3. Styloid process of ulna bone at distal extremity in ox
It is better to read the ulna bone separately while learning anatomy of radius and ulna of ox. The ulna bone of ox consists of a body and two extremities.
The body of the ulna bone is three sided and tapers to a point distally. There is medial and lateral border and caudal border in ulna bone of ox.
The medial and lateral border is thin and sharp except in the interossous space. Caudal border is slightly concave in its length and rounded.
The proximal extremities of ulna bone of ox have some important features. Medial surface of ulna boen is concave and smooth in appearance. Lateral surface of the ulna bone in ox is convex and rough proximally.
The cranial border of ulna bone bears anconeal process. This anoconeal process is also known as beak. Caudal border of ulna bone is nearly straight and thick.
There is olecranon tuberosity at the free end of the olecranon process of ulna in ox.
The distal extremity of ulna bone fused with the radius bone caudally. Distal extremity forms a lateral facet for the ulnar carpal in ox. You will find a pointed structure at the distal end of ulna bone. This pointed structure is known as the lateral styloid process.
Radius and ulna bone of dog
In the anatomy of radius bone of dog you will find the following peculiar features –
#1. Radius and ulna are totally separated bone in dog
#2. The interosseous space is narrow and extended through the length of the bones
#3. You will find a small tubercle at the olecranon process of ulna bone in dog
Radius ulna of horse
#1. The radial tuberosity is well marked in horse radial bone
#2. There is only proximal interossous space is present in horse radius bone
#3. The anconeal process is more extensive than other animals
Carpal bones of ox
I am going to share a little information on the anatomy of carpal bone of ox and other animals. There are six carpal bones in ox and arrange in two rows.
In the first row of carpal of ox, you will find radial, intermediate, ulnar and accessory carpal bones. Again in the distal row you will find the second and third fused carpal and fourth carpal bone in ox.
Do you want to know anatomical features of these carpal bones of ox?
Radial carpal is the largest and compressed transversely. It is clearly six sides bone in ox anatomy. The intermediate carpal bone is wedge shaped or bicycle seat like structure.
Ulnar carpal bone is smallest and most irregular bone of ox skeleton. The accessory carpal bone is located caudal to the ulnar carpal bone.
Anatomy of metacarpal bone
There are two types of metacarpal bone found together in ox fore limb bones.
#1. Larger metacarpal (III and IV) or cannon bone in ox
#2. Lateral small metacarpal bone in ox (V)
You need to identify the following osteological feature from the metacarpal bone of ox –
#1. Vertical groove or longitudinal groove on the dorsal surface of metacarpal bone of ox
#2. Proximal and distal foramina of dorsal vertical groove of ox metacarpal bone
#3. Lateral and medial articular surface at the proximal end of metacarpal of ox
#4. Lateral and medial condyle at distal extremity of ox metacarpal bone
#5. Intercondyloid cleft of metacarpal bone of ox
#6. Four depressions for the proximal sesamoid bones in ox metacarpal
You may get help from the videos and labeled metacarpal pictures of ox. If you need more information about metacarpal bone anatomy of ox, let me inform.
You will find the small metacarpal bone at the postero-lateral aspect of the large metacarpal bone in ox. They possess elongated small pieces of bone in ox fore limb bones.
You will find one large metacarpal (III) and two small metacarpal (II and IV) bones in horse anatomy. The nutrient foramen present in the junction of proximal and distal third of horse metacarpal bone. The metacarpal tuberosity is so prominent in horse metacarpal.
You will find five separated metacarpal bone in the dog metacarpal anatomy.
Hope you have got the best guide to learn osteological features of radius and ulna of ox. In this article I focused more on the anatomy of radius of ox. But you should learn both the bone’s anatomy in details.
If you think the radius and ulna of dog anatomy is not enough for you please let me inform. I will try to provide the full guide for radius and ulna of dog, radius ulna of horse separately.
Hope you like these videos and images related to metacarpal of ox. You may get more labeled pictures of carpal bones of ox at here. I appreciate your kind suggestion for the labeled pictures of radius and ulna of ox. Thank you so much for staying with anatomylearner and learn veterinary gross anatomy with me.