Lung Histology – Best Guide to Learn Histology of Lung Alveoli Labeled Slide

Do you want to learn about the lung histology?

In this article I am going to discuss on normal lung histology of animal. I will also discuss on trachea histology with diagram.

You will get little information on pneumocytes from lung histology diagram. After reading this article you will able to learn histology of lung alveoli. You will able to differentiate different types of bronchi from bronchiole of lung. You may also learn about the respiratory membrane at the end of this article.

I have a special gift for you – histology of lung ppf at the end of the article.

If you have interest to learn lung histology slide labeled continue this article.  Okay, let’s learn lung histology slide together.

Lung histology identification

I would like to enlist the structures that you should identify under the microscope –

#1. Primary bronchi

#2. Secondary bronchi

#3. Tertiary bronchi

#4. Primary bronchiole

#5. Terminal bronchiole

#6. Respiratory bronchiole

#7. Alveolar duct

#8. Alveolar sac

#9. Alveoli or alveolus

#10. Type I pneumocytes

#11. Type II pneumocytes

#12. Pulmonary or alveolar macrophage

#13. External covering of lung

Lung is composed of external covering of serous membrane of visceral pleura. You will find mesothelium lining on connective tissue layer in lung serous membrane.

There is a sub serous areolar tissue in lung histology.

Do you know about the bronchial tree of lung?

There bronchial tree includes the followings structures –

#1. Primary bronchus (extrapulmonary bronchi)

#2. Intrapulmonary bronchi (secondary and tertiary bronchi)

#3. Primary bronchiole

#4. Terminal bronchiole

#5. Respiratory bronchiole

#6. Alveolar duct (two to eleven ducts)

#7. Alveoli

You will find the following changes in a lung histology slide

#1. The lining epithelium gradually decrease in thickness as it is traced distally

#2. The gland and goblet cells gradually decrease and disappears completely

#3. Cartilaginous support decrease while the number of elastic fibers increase

Lung histology slide

The lung contains loose fibroelastic connective tissue called stroma. You will find loose connective tissue septa that separate the lung lobes and lobules.

There is very little intralobular connective tissue occurs in lung tissue. Large blood vessels are found in the lung tissue.

The most available space of lung tissue filled with clumps of alveoli. These alveoli are most associated with alveolar sac or part of wall of alveolar duct.

In the lung histology slide, you will find different types of bronchi and bronchiole. Let’s learn the histology of bronchus from lung together.

There are three types of bronchi in lung and they are –

#1. Extrapulmonary bronchi (primary bronchi)

#2. Intrapulmonary bronchi (secondary and tertiary bronchi)

I would like to discuss the details histological features of these bronchi.

Extrapulmonary bronchi histology of lung

The histology of extrapulmonary bronchi is similar with trachea histology. Do you want to describe bronchi histology? Then you should know the general organizational pattern of a tubular organs.

In the histology of extrapulmonary bronchi you will find the following layers –

#1. Mucosa layer

#2. Lamina propria layer

#3. Submucosa layer

#4. Muscularis layer

#5. Adventitia layer

In the mucosa layer of primary bronchi you will find the respiratory epithelium. Respiratory epithelium contains the following types of cells –

#1. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (tall and densely packed cells)

#2. Goblet cells (mucous secretory cells)

#3. Basal cell (round cell)

#4. Brush cell (columnar cells)

#5. Small granule cells

Thin layer of loose fibro-elastic connective tissue present in lamina propria of bronchi. In submucosa of primary bronchi, you will find moderate dense fibro-elastic connective tissue.

In the muscularis layer of primary bronchi you will find the following structures –

#1. Presence of c shaped irregular hyaline cartilage which is open dorsally. The free end of hyaline cartilage os bridged by smooth muscle

#2. Presence of dense connective tissue

#3. The smooth muscle layer run spirally in criss cross bundle.

In adventitia of primary bronchi you will find the loose connective tissue.

Intrapulmonary bronchi histology of lung

All the histological features are almost similar with the histology of extrapulmonary bronchi. You will find exceptional features in the muscular layer. In muscularis layer of intrapulmonary bronchi you will find the following exceptional features –

#1. Presence of isolated, irregular plate of hyaline cartilage (shown on lung histology slide)

#2. Smooth muscle occurs less complete circular arrangement between cartilage plate and lamina propria

#3. Presence of dense connective tissue between the adjacent cartilaginous plates

Histology of bronchiole from lung

There are three types of bronchioles in lung and they are –

#1. Primary or larger bronchiole

#2. Terminal bronchiole

#3. Respiratory bronchiole

Do you want to learn histology of these bronchioles? I am going to provide the basic histology of different types of bronchioles.

Do want to describe the histology of bronchiole? You should also know about the general organizational pattern of tubular organ. You will find the same layers as you found in bronchi –

#1.  Mucosa layers

#2. Submucosa layer

#3. Muscularis layer and

#4. Adventitia layer

The epithelium of bronchiole varies according to the size of air passageway. In primary bronchiole you will find pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. You may also find few scattered goblet cells. In primary bronchiole.  

At terminal bronchiole you will find the ciliated simple columnar epithelium. You will find the ciliated, non-ciliated simple low columnar epithelium in respiratory bronchiole. Sometime you may find cuboidal epithelium with patches of simple squamous epithelium.

In lamina propria of bronchioles there are loose fibro-elastic connective tissues. There may present solitary lymphoid tissue in laminar propria of bronchiole.

# There are loose fibro-elastic connective tissues in the submucosa of bronchioles.

# There are some exceptional features in the muscularis layer of different bronchioles. In primary and terminal bronchioles you will find spirally arranged smooth muscle.

But in respiratory bronchioles you will find scatter of smooth muscle. Sometime the smooth muscular layer is absent in the respiratory bronchioles.

In adventitia, there is very sparse loose fibro-elastic connective tissue in bronchioles.

Histology of lung alveoli

Alveoli are sac like structure of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct and alveolar sac. These alveoli are responsible for spongy structure of lung. They are separated by interalveolar septa that contain one or more alveolar pore.

The intraalveolar septa are the partition of two adjacent alveoli. They consists of two thin squamous epithelium layer.

Mucosa layer of alveoli

Alveolar duct and alveolar sac lined by the patches of simple cuboidal epithelium. But alveolus is lined by simple squamous epithelium. These simple epithelium of alveoli contain the three major cells –

#1. Type I pnemocytes

#2. Type II pnemocytes

#3. Pulmonary or alveolar macrophage (dust cell)

Type I pnemocytes

#1. These are the thin small squamous cells

#2. Most gass exchanges occurs through Type I pneumocytes

#3. Covers almost all surface of the alveolar surface

Type II pnemocytes

#1. These are great or giant alveolar cell

#2. Rough cuboidal and bear microvilli on free surface

#3. It contains fomay vacuolated cytoplasm due to presence of lamellate bodies

#4. Produce pulmonary surfactant

Pulmonary or alveolar macrophage (dust cell)

#1. Derived from monocytes and part of mononuclear phagocytic system

#2. Found interior of interalveolar septum or often seen in alveolar surface

#3. Remove inhaled dust and other particle trapped in pulmonary surfactant

There is thin loose fibro-elastic connective tissue in the lamina propria of alveoli. Sometimes you may find scattered fibroblast and very fine collagen fibers in propria. There are numerous capillaries warraped around the alveolus.

The submucosa and muscularis mucosa are absent in most area of alveoli. Few scattered smooth muscle fiber may occurs around some of the alveolar duct.  

Histology of lung pdf

Do you need histology of lung pdf ?  You may also get histology of lung ppt for your practice.

Blood air barrier

Air in alveoli is separated from capillary blood by three components. These are referred to collectively as blood air barrier.

#1. Surface lining and cytoplasm of alveolar cell

#2. Fused basal lamina of closely apposed alveolar cell and endothelium cells of capillary

#3. Cytoplasm of endothelium cells of continuous capillary within the interalveolar septum

Do you want to know the function of blood air barrier?

#1. Permit diffusion of gases between alveolar air space and blood

Respiratory membrane

Membrane of all terminal portion of lung collectively known as respiratory membrane

The structures of respiratory membrane are –

#1. Surfactant layer – a layer of fluid lining pulmonary blood and containing the surfactant

#2. A layer of alveolar epithelium

#3. An epithelium basement membrane

#4. A very thin interstitial space between the alveolar epithelium and capillary membrane

#5. A capillary basement membrane

#6. Capillary endothelium membrane

Function of respiratory membrane

# Gaseous exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary blodd occurs through respiratory membrane

You may also learn histology of following organs from –

#1. Best guide to learn histology of gallbladder in details

#2. Best guide to learn liver histology in details

Do you want to learn the details anatomy of lung from different animals? You may find details anatomy of lung here in this blog.


Hope you got a better idea about lung histology. Please watch the video carefully and learn from lung histology diagram.

You may practice again and perform lung histology slide diagram. Please let me inform if you need histology of lung pdf.

Do you think this article was valuable for you to know histology of alveoli? I would like to request you to share this article with your friends interest to learn lung histology.

I used to publish article like histology of bronchiole tree in a regular basis. Do you want to know more about histology of bronchioles? You may follow this blog to learn trachea histology. For quick update about bronchi slide pictures follow this anatomylearner at social media.

Do you think this information is enough about alveoli histology?  If you have any suggestion about bronchioles histology let me inform at comment box. Do you found any mistake at lung histology labeled? Please let me inform through direct message. I will appreciate your suggestion for this histology of lung article.

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