Humerus of Ox – The Complete Guide to Learn Humerus Bone Anatomy

The arm of ox consists of humerus bone. Are you looking for the complete guide to learn humerus of ox anatomy? It’s not so hard to learn humerus anatomy of ox.

In this article I am going to share humerus bone anatomy of ox. I will provide a simple guide so that you may learn anatomy of humerus in easy way.

Hey, thank you so much for getting into this humerus anatomy article. I am here to help you to learn humeral anatomy of animal in easy way. After reading this article you will able to learn anatomy of humerus bone of ox. You will also learn about humerus of horse anatomy.

Do you want to learn scapula of ox anatomy? I have a full guide to learn details anatomy of scapula from different animals. You may find other different anatomy guide like complete anatomy of radius ulna of ox at here in this blog.

Okay, let’s get into today’s topics – humeral anatomy of ox.

Humerus of ox

You should know the following basic information about humerus of ox first –

#1. It is a long bone and directed obliquely downward and backward

#2. Humerus consists of a body and two extremities – proximal and distal extremities

#3.  It forms angle with the horizontal plane of the body

I would like to provide the summary of the anatomy of humeral bone of ox. Following are the structures you are going to learn from humerus bone –

#1. Structures of proximal extremity

#2. Structures of distal extremity of humerus

#3. Different parts and structures of the body of humerus of animal

#4. Humeral anatomy from other animals like horse, dog and pig

Humerus bone of ox – proximal extremity

You should identify the following anatomical features from the proximal etrimity of ox humerus bone

#1. Head of humerus of ox

#2. The neck of humerus bone

#3. The tuberosities of humerus bone

#4. Intertuberal groove of proximal end of humerus bone

#5. Greater tubercle of humerus bone

#6. Lesser tubercle of humerus bone

#7. Intermediate tubercle of humerus (in horse humerus)

Let’s identify these structures from the labeled humerus bone of ox.

Head of humerus bone is circular, convex and articulates with the glenoid cavity of scapula bone. There are several foramina at the cranial aspect of this bone.

The neck of humerus is the constricted part just below the head of humerus. It is well defined and located caudally.

The tuberosities in proximal humerus bone are two in numbers (except in horse – three in number) –

#1. Greater tubercle and

#2. Lesser tubercle

Another name of greater tubercle is lateral tuberosity. The lesser tubercle is also known as medial tuberosity. There is an intermediate tubercle in between these two tubercles in horse. Lateral tuberosity is larger and prominent in ox.

There is intertuberal groove in between these two tubercles. The intertuberal groove is located at the cranial aspect of proximal humerus of ox. Another name of this intertuberal groove is bicipital groove.

Humerus bone antomy of ox – distal extremity

From the distal extremity of humerus bone you should identify the following structures –

#1. Medial condyle of ox humerus bone

#2. Lateral condyle of animal humerus

#3. Olecranon fossa of animal humerus

#4. Radial fossa of animal humerus

The medial epicondyle of humerus is known as trochlea. And this trochlea is larger and is transversed by a groove. The lateral epicondyle is known as capitulum and bears epicondyloid crest laterally.

The radial fossa is located cranially and accommodates the coronoid process of radius bone during flexion. The olecranon process is located caudally between lateral and medial condyles. It accommodates the anconeal process of ulna projectd during extension.

Anatomical features of humerus body of ox

You should identify the following important osteological features from the body of humerus of ox. Before enlisting these structures I would like to share some important anatomical features of humeral body –

#1. The body of humerus is cylindrical in shaped

#2. It is somewhat twisted and have four surfaces – lateral, medial, cranial and caudal surfaces

From the lateral surface you should identify the following osteological features –

#1. Musculosprial groove of the body of humerus

#2. Deltoid tuberosity of humers body

Important osteological features at the medial surface of humeral body –

#1. Teres major tuberosity of ox humerus

#2. Several nutrient foramens

In cranial surface you will find the following important osteological features of humeral bone –

#1. Crest of humerus bone

#2. Teres minor tuberosity of humerus bone

The caudal surface of humerus of ox is rounded from side to side. You will find smooth surface with some nutrient foramen in caudal surface of ox humerus.

The lateral surface of humerus bone is smooth and spirally curved. This curved structure actually forms the musculospiral groove in humerus.

The medial surface of humerus is straight in its length and rounded from side to side. It bends with cranial and caudal surface. At the middle from proximal end there is a tuberosity which is known as teres major tuberosity.

The cranial surface is irregular, wide and smooth at proximal end of humerus. There is a separate line of cranial and lateral surface. This line known as crest of humerus

How to find right or left humerus?

I know you are now able to identify all the osteological features of humerus of ox. It is also so simple to identify the right or left humerus of ox.

You should consider a landmark to identify the right or left humerus. For example, you may consider the deltoid process of humerus. You know deltoid process is located at the lateral surface of the body of humerus bone.

Before that, you should confirm the proximal and distal part of humerus. You should perform it easily with their identical osteological features.

If you find the deltoid tuberosity at right lateral aspect then it will be the right humerus. So the process of identification of right or left humerus is –

#1. Identification of proximal extremity and distal extremity of humerus bone

#2. Landmark consideration like deltoid tuberosity at lateral surface

Humerus of horse

Would you like to make difference between humerus of ox and horse? I would like to provide the important exceptional features from humerus of horse.

#1. The musculospiral groove is more deep and twisted

#2. Deltoid tuberosity is so prominent in horse humerus

#3. Presence of intermediate tubercle at proximal extremity

Humerus of dog

#1. The bone is more long and less twisted than other animal’s humerus

#2. Radial and olecranon fossa are communicated by a large supratrochlear foramen

#3. Musculospiral groove is not so prominent

#4. Deltoid tuberosity is in the form of ridge

Humerus of pig

#1. Musculospiral groove is shallow in pig humerus bone

#2. Presence of supratrochlear foramen in the humerus of pig

#3. Both proximal and distal extremity end are inclined


Hope this guide was so easy to learn the humerus of ox anatomy. You should identify all the osteological features of humerus from different animal. Please make more difference between humerus of ox and horse.

I used to publish regular article like humerus of ox anatomy in this blog. You may find more labeled humerus bone picture at here.

You may read another article like radius ulna of ox and scapula of ox at here.

Do you think the video of humers anatomy of animals was helpful? If you find any mistake in labeled humerus please let me inform. I appreciate your suggestion for this humerus article.

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