Scapula of Ox – The Ultimate Guide to Learn Scapular Anatomy of Animal

Do you want to know about scapula of ox?

If yes then you are in the right place where you will get the ultimate guide to know the anatomy of scapula of cattle.

Here in this article I will try to cover the scapular anatomy of different animals. After reading this article you will able to know and identify the different structures of scapula.

In this article you will also know the difference among scapula of horse, scapula of dog and scapula of pig.

If you are really interest to know the anatomy of scapular region then I would like to request you to read this full article.

Scapula of ox

Scapula of ox

Before to start learning scapular anatomy you must have an idea about different terminology related to veterinary anatomy. If you want you may learn from this article at here (veterinary gross anatomy).

Okay, let’s focus to our main part of this article – scapula of ox

First I will try to inform you the basic of scapula anatomy of cattle. Then I will try to compare the structures among different animals.

So, from this single article you will learn scapular anatomy of different animals.

You should know the following basic information about the scapula –

#1. Scapula is the flat and triangular bone

#2. It is located at the cranial part of the lateral wall of thorax

#3. It helps to form the thoracic or pectoral girdle

#4. Scapula usually extends obliquely from the 4th thoracic spine to ventral end of 1st rib

#5. The direction of scapula in normal condition is downward and forward

Hope, you got a basic idea what is scapula and where it is located.  Okay, let’s continue to read to get better information about scapula of cattle.

Scapula of ox
Scapula of ox

Anatomy of scapula of ox

You know scapula is triangular in shaped. But it is more triangular in ruminant like cattle and goat. It possesses the following –

  • #1. Two surfaces
  • #2. Three borders and
  • #3. Three angles

Again, if you want to get more deep information about the surface, border and angle you may check another article about terminology at here.

Anatomical features of scapula of ox

In practices, you should identify the following features from the scapula of ox. Hope, these will help to get an idea what actually you are going to learn. We will also discuss details in later part of this article.

In lateral aspect you should identify the following anatomical features of scapula –

  • #1. Dorsal border
  • #2. Cranial border
  • #3. Caudal border
  • #4. Cranial angle
  • #5. Caudal angle
  • #6. Glenoid angle
  • #7. Spine of scapula
  • #8. Supraspinous fossa
  • #9. Infraspinous fossa
  • #10. Tuberosity of spine
  • #11. Acromion process
  • #12. Coracoid process
  • #13. Supraglenoid tubercle
  • #14. Scapular cartilage
  • #15. Glenoid cavity

In medial aspect you should identify the following anatomical structures of scapula of ox –

  • #1. Dorsal border, cranial and caudal border
  • #2. Cranial, caudal and glenoid angles
  • #3. Subscapular fossa
  • #4. Facies serrate
  • #5. Acromion process
  • #6. Coracoid process
  • #7. Glenoid cavity

Okay, let’s find these anatomical features from the labeled scapula image.

Have you learn scapula of ox little form these resources? If you want to learn more perfect and details about scapular anatomy then please continue to read this article.

How to identify anatomical features of scapula of ox

First you should identify the dorsal border, cranial border and caudal border of scapula. Then it will easy to identify all other structures of ox scapula.

But how you should perform it? Okay, look at scapula. You will find slender or pointed line at surface of scapula. This is called spine and it located at the lateral surface of scapula.

Hope, you got the lateral surface of scapula. Now, you should identify which part faced dorsally and which part faced ventrally.

For that, please look at the expanded area of scapula. You will find a facet like structure where scapular cartilage will be logged. And this scapular cartilage is located at the dorsal border of scapula.

Hope, you go the dorsal part of scapula. Now it is easy to identify the ventral portion of scapula. Please, look again at scapula. There is constricted part and there is a cavity like structure at the end of this portion. This is called glenoid cavity and this structure is located at the ventral angle of scapula.

Now, you should identify the cranial and caudal border of scapula of cattle. For that, please find out the spine again. You will find that the spine of scapula is divided it into two unequal parts (except dog).

The smaller portion is known as supraspinous fossa and it faced cranially. The larger portion is known as infraspinous fossa and is faced caudally.

Congratulations, you have successfully identified the basic structures of scapular anatomy of ox. Now, it is easy to identify the other scapular features.

Surfaces anatomical features of scapula of ox

You know about the spine of scapula which is thick and rough. There is a large round projection at the middle of this spine (tuberosity of spine).

Spine divided the lateral surface of scapula and gives two fossa like supraspinous and infraspinous. The infraspinous fossa is smooth dorsally and narrows at the ventral portion. You will found some rough line for muscular attachment on infraspinous fossa.

In medial surface, you will find the hollowed structure at the ventral portion. The subscapularis muscles are logged at here.

There are two rough triangular areas which are pointed at the media surface. These two structures are known as facies serrate.

Scapula of ox
Scapula of ox (cattle)

Borders of scapula of ox

There are three borders in scapula – cranial, caudal and dorsal border.

The dorsal border is thick and pitted by impression where fits scapular cartilage.

Cranial border is convex and rough at dorsally. Again, it is concave and smooth at ventrally.

Caudal border is cocave and thick ventrally

Angles of scapula of ox

There are also three angles of scapula and they are – cranial, caudal and ventral angles.

Cranial angle is thin and formed by the junction of cranial and dorsal border of scapula

Caudal border is thick, rough and located opposite to the vertebral end of 7th ribs

The ventral angle contains the gelnoid cavity and there is cut margin cranially. This cut portion is known as the geloid notch.

Cranial to the geloid notch there is a small projection like structure which is known as supraglenoid tubercle.

Finally, medial to this supraglenoid tubercle there is a small crocoid process where coracobrachialis muscle origin.

Scapula of horse

I would like to enlist the special anatomical features of scapula of horse which is differ from ox scapula –

#1. The acromion process is absent

#2. Supraglenoid tubercle is larger

#3. Coracoid process is well-developed

#4. Subscapular fossa is deeper

#5. Glenoid notch is also deeper 

Other anatomical features of scapula are similar with the scapula of ox.

Scapula of pig

In scapula of pig, you will find the following special features –

#1. Suoraspinous fossa is larger than the infraspinous fossa

#2. Acromion process is rudimentary

#3. Coracoid process is also well-developed

#4. Glenoid notch is absent

Scapula of dog

You will find the following special scapula anatomy in dog –

#1. Spine divided the lateral surface in two equal portions

#2. Acromion process is short, blunt and extended to the level of gelnoid cavity

#3. Coracoid process is absent

#4. Subscapular fossa is shallow and has few rough line for muscle attachment

#5. Glenoid notch is deep


Hope, you got a better idea about scapula of ox along with scapula of horse, scapula of dog and scapula of pig.

Now, you may practices and evaluate your learning with the help of scapula of cattle ppt.

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I used to publish this kind of article related to veterinary gross anatomy in a regular basis. If you want to know more about the anatomy of different organs like scapula, humerus then you may follow this blog. For quick update about the articles, images and videos you may follow at social media.

If you think this information is not enough or if you found any mistake or if you have any suggestion about scapula of ox then I would like to request you to inform me at comment box or send me direct message. I will happy and always appreciate your suggestion for this scapular anatomy article.

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